A triathlon can be daunting. The three distance races of swim, bike, and run utilize different energy systems and muscle activation patterns. Each requires unique physical and mental skills to reach the finish line.
Triathlon training is also about tradeoffs.1
It would be nice if bike fitness easily translated into the water, or running ability made you a great bike rider. In some ways, fitness does translate. But each discipline requires dedication. A proper training schedule should be specific to triathlon demands.
A triathlon training plan focusing on specificity of the swim, bike, run, and all transition areas will optimize race day performance. And don’t forget about nutrition and sleep; these are considered the fourth triathlon disciplines. Both in and out of season, make sure you hit all of the basics.
Finding new challenges and setting goals helps push performance limits. If you’re an athlete who has traditionally stuck to one sport, training for your first triathlon may be just what you need to spice up your training schedule. It may also light a new competitive flame.
Triathlon training can stimulate your body in new ways and work new energy systems. It’s like rigorous cross training. Triathlon-specific fitness can improve overall health, may translate to reduced injury in other sports and perhaps weight loss, if that’s a goal.
Before developing a training schedule, the first step is to decide which triathlon distance you’ll conquer for your next or first triathlon. This will influence your workouts and overall training time.
Sprint Distance Triathlon
Swim - 750 meters (¾ mile)
Bike - 20k (12.4 miles)
Run - 5k (3.1 miles)
Standard or Olympic Distance Triathlon
Swim - 1.5k (.93 miles)
Bike - 40k (24.8 miles)
Run - 10k (6.2 miles)
Swim - 1.9k (1.2 miles)
Bike - 90k (55.9 miles)
Run - 21.9k (13.6 miles)
Swim - 3.9k (2.4 miles)
Bike - 180k (112 miles)
Run - 42k (26.2 miles)
There are a few things to consider when choosing your race distance.
The first: time. How much of your schedule can you dedicate to training? Most programs include two workouts per day, several days per week. You’ll likely need to dedicate 10 - 12 hours or more to training each week. Naturally, a longer race (half-Ironman or full Ironman) will require more time in the pool, on your road bike, or laced into your running shoes pounding pavement. Most people don’t have the luxury of being a pro-athlete with unlimited training time. The average Joe isn’t training for the Ironman World Championships in Hawaii.
Training environment is another consideration. Will you be able to practice open water swims in a nearby lake, or is a pool your only option? Trails and roadways conducive to long runs and rides may dictate training quality and safety.
The most obvious consideration is experience.
Many new triathletes want to attack the biggest race their first time out, but this could spell disaster.
A long history of athletics or endurance sport may allow you to seamlessly finish your first race without much trouble, but it may not. It’s important to learn to enjoy the journey of the sport as much as the destination.
It's considered the fourth sport of the triathlon. Learn from our experts how to optimize your nutritional strategy by subscribing here.
You have three sports to train for, and only so many hours. How much should you dedicate to training for each discipline? Tradeoffs dictate that, by choosing to spend more time in one activity, you must lower the amount of time spent in another. Swimming, biking, and running can be thought of as three slices of the giant training pie.
The relationship between triathlon training and performance is specific.2 Time spent training in a specific discipline directly predicts performance in that race leg. More swim training means a stronger swim portion. This makes sense physiologically because the same muscles, motions, and pace we train are the same muscles, motions, and pace with which we compete.
Generally, you should do the same number of swims, bike rides, and runs each week. In total, aim for two workouts per week for each discipline. An easy formula for this plan follows a single swim-bike-run-swim-bike-run each day. This also includes one day per week to be used for recovery.
While on the topic of rest, plan your training program so you never have back-to-back hard workouts (e.g. interval training on Monday and a hill workout on Tuesday).
If you’ve assessed your strengths and determined you may need a little more swim, run, or bike work, an additional third session of a specific discipline can be added per week. This might come in the form of a “brick workout” (discussed later) or a day where you complete two workouts (a double).
Early research on elite endurance athletes found they gained the most fitness when completing approximately 80% or more of their training at low intensity (below lactate threshold) and the remaining 20% at moderate or high intensity.3 This pattern was remarkably consistent. A high-volume, low-intensity training program, sprinkled with high-intensity intervals sessions, can produce success in longer endurance events. Do what the elites do and you might snag an age group or podium finish.
Applying this rule to your training is simple. Create a schedule where 80% of your training volume (in time) is at a low intensity. What is a low intensity, exactly? Generally, low intensity is regarded as anywhere between 45% - 80% of your predicted heart rate max.
Plan your remaining training sessions at moderate or high intensity. These will be your interval workouts, tempo sessions, and hill work. One high-intensity swim, bike ride, and run per week is the general framework. High-intensity training occurs at a heart rate from 80% - 100% of your predicted heart rate max.
Spending time logging miles in each discipline is crucial to develop proper endurance needed for the triathlon. Practice swimming, biking, and running at paces and tempos you’ll experience on race day.
It may be useful to research the race course to determine layout and elevation changes. Find out whether you’ll be racing an open water or ocean swim. This can help to guide specific training sessions.
The swim portion is the most physically-technical part of the triathlon.
Good swimming should look almost effortless and relaxed. Swimming better isn’t just a matter of moving your arms harder or faster–efficiency is important.
You can build efficiency in two ways. The first involves swimming a set distance (say 25m) with a lower number of strokes in the same amount of time. Swim five sets of 25 meters each, and lower your stroke count by 1 - 2 for each repetition. This will improve the distance you can travel with each stroke.
To improve tempo, swim a set distance in the same amount of strokes, but decrease time on each repetition. This means you’ll be taking strokes more frequently.
Focus on long, clean strokes rather than choppy harsh ones.
The bike discipline of the triathlon is where you’ll spend the most amount of race time, and is also where you can potentially make up the most ground lost. Cycle training is crucial because many triathletes underperform on the run due to residual fatigue during the bike.
Power is the cyclist’s most crucial asset. More power on your road bike means you can ride faster over any race distance. Workouts to build power should be included in your cycling plan, and hill sessions are a great way to increase power. Hill workouts become extremely important if your race course contains significant elevation changes, long climbs, and steep inclines.
To hill train, start by finding a hill with about 1,000 feet of climbing. Each week, try to increase the distance climbed on this route while maintaining the same cadence and effort. If you have a power meter, trying to maintain power on climbs while increasing distance is a way to gauge fitness improvements.
Another variation of hill sessions are high-intensity uphill sprints. Sprint uphill for 60 - 90 seconds, followed by a ride back down for recovery. Repeat this 8 -12 times per workout.
Your lactate threshold is the highest intensity you can sustain for around 60 minutes. At or above this intensity, the body starts to accumulate lactate, signaling a reliance on anaerobic energy production systems.
Exercise above this threshold can’t be sustained for long, so working to increase your threshold is crucial.
Lactate threshold is the best predictor of race performance for many cycling events.4
LT workouts are typically done as longer intervals. Find a long flat road where you won’t have to slow down or stop often. Try doing 3 - 4 ten-minute intervals at your lactate threshold pace. Increase time as you progressively get fitter or add more intervals.
Unlike swimming and running, biking involves more technical equipment. Consider a few of training tips help optimize your time in the saddle.
Endurance runs form the base of triathlon run training; they're key to developing a powerful heart, increasing muscle capillaries for oxygen delivery, building robust mitochondria, and strengthening running-specific muscles.5
Long runs build fatigue resistance and confidence, both crucial to perform well on race day. A general recommendation for triathletes: long runs should equate to about 35% of your total weekly running volume. If you train 4 - 6 hours per week, this would mean a long run of 1.5 - 2 hours or more.
High-intensity speed work should occur at 80% - 100% of your maximal HR or V02 max.
Generally, a 2:1 or 1:1 work to rest ratio for intervals is recommended. This might take the form of two minutes at high intensity followed by one minute jog recovery, repeated eight times. Feel free to experiment with different types of intervals and mold them to your race distance.
The triathlon is not three separate sports, but a single sport combining three interconnected events. The back-to-back-to-back nature of triathlons means you’ll need to practice the transitions and simulate the fatigue you’ll experience on race day. Brick workouts are race day dress rehearsals.
The brick is a specialized workout typically combining either a swim/bike or a bike/run into a single session.
In each, the first activity is followed immediately by the next with little to no recovery time.
Brick workouts allow the body to adapt to specifics of swim/bike and bike/run transitions. There are biomechanical and physiological differences among all events that will make transitioning uncomfortable if not practiced. Brick sessions allow you to practice making seamless transitions and minimize your performance drop from one event to the next.
A simple brick workout might include a 500 meter swim in a pool, followed immediately by an easy bike ride of around 45 - 60 minutes. As you adapt to the transition, you can increase length and intensity of the swim and the bike ride.
For a bike/run brick workout, the same format can be applied. A 45 - 60-minute bike ride followed by a 30-minute run can get you into the rhythm of using different muscles and movements during this transition.
Outside of brick workouts, practice your swim-to-bike and bike-to-run transitions. Rehearse getting out of your wetsuit and swim cap, getting onto the bike and then, unclipping your cycling shoes and lacing up your running shoes. This will make sure things go as smooth as possible on race day.
Most triathletes should aim to complete one brick workout every 3 - 4 weeks. Keep the intensity of the swim, bike, and run the same as that of other workouts. If you had a moderate intensity swim or bike planned for a particular day, do a brick workout with both events at moderate intensity.
For duration, if you’re training for a sprint triathlon or Olympic distance triathlon, this workout should be 50% - 100% of race distance. For half-Ironman and full Ironman triathlons, 25% - 50% of race distance is recommended for a brick workout.
High-volume training means you’ll be tearing through energy stores. This requires you fuel properly and strategically.
What you eat before a workout plays two roles. The first is ensuring that you’re able to maximize energy production needed for high-quality workouts and attain the greatest training adaptations. The second is the opportunity to practice race day nutrition strategies.
The practice of training with reduced fuel availability, termed “training low,” is a recent strategy used by endurance athletes. It involves doing 30% - 50% of your training sessions with reduced carbohydrate availability.6 This could be accomplished by doing your ride, run, and swim in the morning after an overnight fast.
Manipulate carbohydrate availability on a session-by-session basis with intensity and duration in mind. Train low sessions should be planned around your lower-intensity workouts.
This is because low-intensity exercise relies more on fat oxidation versus carbohydrate oxidation for energy.
Training in a “fasted” state increases free fatty acid availability and lipid oxidation which can subsequently be used during the session.
There is evidence that training low stimulates post-exercise gene expression, oxidative enzymes, glycogen storage capacity, and other molecules related to positive metabolic adaptations compared to exercising with high carbohydrate availability.6 Multiple studies report exercise performance changes following exercise training with carbohydrate restriction, such as improved time trial and submaximal exercise performance.7,8,9
When the body is low on carbohydrates, it burns more fat and even produces ketones for fuel. Ketones are the body’s natural back up, used in an energy crisis to replace carbohydrate–typically you either have enough carbs to get by but no ketones or no carbs and then elevated ketones. It's a trade off between fuels.
Not so with HVMN Ketone. After consuming HVMN Ketone, the body can use both carbohydrates and ketones for energy, essentially giving the body two fuel tanks to employ. The result? In a 30-minute time trial, elite cyclists rode 400m further (performing 2% - 3% better) after drinking HVMN Ketone.10
High-intensity sessions rely more heavily on carbohydrate oxidation than low-intensity work. For these workouts, having high availability of carbohydrate is recommended in order to maximize training output and adaptation. Pre-exercise carbohydrate intake (3 - 4 hours before a workout) enhances carbohydrate availability during exercise and has been shown to improve endurance capacity.11
A triathlon training plan doesn’t have to be complex. After you’ve found the right race, following some well known strategies in regards to your training and nutrition will set you up for success at any race distance.
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|1.||Calsbeek R, Careau V. Survival of the Fastest: The Multivariate Optimization of Performance Phenotypes. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2018|
|2.||Hendy HM, Boyer BJ. Specificity in the relationship between training and performance in triathlons. Percept Mot Skills. 1995;81(3 Pt 2):1231-40.|
|3.||Seiler, S, & Tønnessen, E. Training Intervals, Thresholds, and Long Slow Distance: the Role of Intensity and Duration in Endurance Training. Sportscience 2009; (13) 32-53.|
|4.||Coyle EF, Coggan AR, Hopper MK, Walters TJ. Determinants of endurance in well-trained cyclists. J Appl Physiol. 1988;64(6):2622-30.|
|5.||Ingjer, F. Effects of endurance training on muscle fibre ATP-ase activity, capillary supply and mitochondrial content in man. J Physiol (1979); 294: 419–432.|
|6.||Impey SG, Hearris MA, Hammond KM, et al. Fuel for the Work Required: A Theoretical Framework for Carbohydrate Periodization and the Glycogen Threshold Hypothesis. Sports Med. 2018;48(5):1031-1048.|
|7.||Marquet LA, Brisswalter J, Louis J, et al. Enhanced Endurance Performance by Periodization of Carbohydrate Intake: "Sleep Low" Strategy. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2016;48(4):663-72.|
|8.||Cochran AJ, Myslik F, Macinnis MJ, et al. Manipulating Carbohydrate Availability Between Twice-Daily Sessions of High-Intensity Interval Training Over 2 Weeks Improves Time-Trial Performance. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab. 2015;25(5):463-70.|
|9.||Marquet LA, Hausswirth C, Molle O, et al. Periodization of Carbohydrate Intake: Short-Term Effect on Performance. Nutrients. 2016;8(12)|
|10.||Cox, P.J., Kirk, T., Ashmore, T., Willerton, K., Evans, R., Smith, A., Murray, Andrew J., Stubbs, B., West, J., McLure, Stewart W., et al. (2016). Nutritional Ketosis Alters Fuel Preference and Thereby Endurance Performance in Athletes. Cell Metabolism 24, 1-13.|
|11.||Sherman WM, Brodowicz G, Wright DA, Allen WK, Simonsen J, Dernbach A. Effects of 4 h preexercise carbohydrate feedings on cycling performance. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 1989;21(5):598-604.|
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