There are three published studies of HVMN Ketone in athletes (total n = 59). In one study, performance in a 30 minute cycling time trial (after 60 minutes of ‘pre-fatigue’) was measured. HVMN Ketone taken along with carbohydrate improved cycling time trial performance by 2.3% compared to the same amount of calories as multiple transportable carbohydrates. Blood BHB was 3 - 5 mM in all three athlete studies.
Other effects of HVMN Ketone found in these studies included:
You may have seen, recently a study of ketone esters (carried out in Australia) looked at the performance effects of ketone esters taken before a 31 km cycling time trial. This study found that many of the athletes felt sick after taking the ketone ester and that their performance got worse. Why might this have been different to the results using HVMN Ketone?
There are two published studies investigating the effects of ketone salts in athletes (total n = 22). Performance over 4 minute cycling time trial and a 150 kJ ( ~10 mins) cycling time trial were compared between ketone salts (without carbohydrate) vs. carbohydrate alone. In the 4 minute trial there was no change in performance, and in the 150 kJ test performance was decreased by 7%. Blood BHB levels peaked at 0.6 and 0.8 mM in these studies.
Cox, P.J., Kirk, T., Ashmore, T., Willerton, K., Evans, R., Smith, A., Murray, Andrew J., Stubbs, B., West, J., McLure, Stewart W., et al. (2016). Nutritional Ketosis Alters Fuel Preference and Thereby Endurance Performance in Athletes. Cell Metabolism 24, 1-13.
Vandoorne, T., De Smet, S., Ramaekers, M., Van Thienen, R., De Bock, K., Clarke, K., and Hespel, P. (2017). Intake of a Ketone Ester Drink during Recovery from Exercise Promotes mTORC1 Signaling but Not Glycogen Resynthesis in Human Muscle. Front. Physiol. 8, 310.
Youm, Y.-H., Nguyen, K.Y., Grant, R.W., Goldberg, E.L., Bodogai, M., Kim, D., D'Agostino, D., Planavsky, N., Lupfer, C., Kanneganti, T.D., et al. (2015). The ketone metabolite [beta]-hydroxybutyrate blocks NLRP3 inflammasome-mediated inflammatory disease. Nat. Med. 21, 263-269.
Forsythe, C.E., Phinney, S.D., Fernandez, M.L., Quann, E.E., Wood, R.J., Bibus, D.M., Kraemer, W.J., Feinman, R.D., and Volek, J.S. (2008). Comparison of low fat and low carbohydrate diets on circulating fatty acid composition and markers of inflammation. Lipids 43, 65-77.
O’Malley, T., Myette-Cote, E., Durrer, C., and Little, J.P. (2017). Nutritional ketone salts increase fat oxidation but impair high-intensity exercise performance in healthy adult males. Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, 1-5.
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