Vitamin K is one of the 13 essential vitamins. It comes in two naturally occurring forms, K1, and K2. Vitamin K2 has many related forms, which are produced by our cells, or by intestinal bacteria. The MK subtypes of vitamin K2 possess a similar function to K1, but exactly how their mechanisms differ from vitamin K1 are still incompletely understood.1MK-4 is the most prominent vitamin K subtype in the brain.2MK-4 makes up >98% of vitamin K in the brain and is widely distributed, however, the highest concentrations of Vitamin K are in the midbrain, pons, and medulla. (Learn more)
Astaxanthin is a naturally occurring carotenoid compound that is commonly found in seafood such as crabs and lobster. Astaxanthin has various antioxidant and inflammatory effects which are beneficial for long-term health. With respect to cognition, astaxanthin has been shown to be useful for improving fatigue, attention and memory. On the molecular level, astaxanthin prevents neuronal and ganglion cell damage. (Learn more)
Vitamin D is an essential nutrient produced by the body and also found in fatty fish, fish oils, meats, and fortified milk sold in the US. Vitamin D crosses the blood-brain-barrier both by passive diffusion, as well as active transport by cell-surface proteins. Additionally, the brain can synthesize its own vitamin D, as two of the primary enzymes needed (24-hydroxylase and 1α-hydroxylase) are expressed in the brain. (Learn more)
Omega-3 fatty acids are a class of polyunsaturated fatty acid compounds that have ore than one double bond in their backbone. Research has shown that dietary supplementation with omega-3 fatty acids carry benefits including improved memory, reduced symptoms of depression, decreases in triglyceride levels, and decreases in blood pressure. The most commonly used omega-3 fatty acids are eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosahexaneoic acid (DHA), and α-linolenic acid (ALA). (Learn more)
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