1,3-dimethylamylamine (methylhexanamine, dimethylamylamine) is an indirect sympathomimetic drug that acts as a stimulant. It was first patented as a nasal decongestant, and has been used as an aid to improving attention. It has been used for the purposes of weight loss and athletic performance as well. Studies have shown that 1,3-dimethylamylamine
1,3-dimethylamylamine (methylhexanamine) is similar in structure to amphetamine. 1,3-dimethylamylamine acts as a sympathetic agonist, as it binds to the alpha-1 adrenergic receptor.
1,3-dimethylamylamine (methylhexanamine) is similar in structure to amphetamine. Furthermore, it carries similar physiological effects as a sympathetic agonist.
Physiological effects of 1,3-dimethylamylamine include appetite suppression as well as vasoconstriction. In a study involving 10 healthy adults, it has been found that 1,3-dimethylamylamine is associated with increases in blood pressure (20% increase in systolic blood pressure, 17% increase in diastolic blood pressure) but not with increases in heart rate.
In a study involving 5 men and 7 women, it was found that 1,3-dimethylamylamine administration was associated with improved memory, visual processing speed, and reaction time as measured by the Concussion Assessment and Cognitive Testing (ImPACT) test.1
While 1,3-dimethylamylamine may exhibit some nootropic effects in certain individuals, it is important to note that major adverse effects have been seen in certain groups of individuals.
A case report showed that the ingestion of 1,3-dimethylamylamine resulted in death due to cardiac arrest in two soldiers who were engaged in physical activity after ingestion of 1,3-dimethylamylamine.2
There have been reports of adverse cardiovascular effects of 1,3-dimethylamylamine. In one case report, a 22 year old healthy male exhibited a non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction after self-reported ingestion of the dietary supplement Jack3d, which contains 1,3-dimethylamylamine.3
The use of 1,3-dimethylamylamine has been associated with cerebral hemorrhage.4In one case report, a 22 year old woman ingested 66 mg 1,3-dimethylamylamine along with alcohol, and developed sudden, severe frontal headache with dizzines within 30 minutes. Eventually she exhibited subarachnoid hemorrhage in the frontal lobe of the brain.4
Another case of cerebral hemorrhage occurred in a 43-year old individual when ingesting 1,3-dimethylamylamine at a quantity of 2.31 mg/L. The individual eventually suffered a hemorrhage in the left basal ganglia.4
There is a limited amount of scientific evidence to support a favorable risk-reward profile for 1,3-dimethylamylamine. While there have been some reports of positive effects of 1,3-dimethylamylamine on cognition with respect to attention, further research may be required in order to clarify the compound's effects more rigorously. Furthermore, 1,3-dimethylamylamine has been associated with various adverse effects such as myocardial infarction, cerebral hemorrhage and death.2In addition, 1,3-dimethylamylamine is not classified as a Generally Regarded as Safe (GRAS) compound by the FDA.
Eliason, M. J., Eichner, A., Cancio, A., Bestervelt, L., Adams, B. D., & Deuster, P. A. (2012). Case reports: death of active duty soldiers following ingestion of dietary supplements containing 1, 3-dimethylamylamine (DMAA). Military medicine, 177(12), 1455-1459.
Smith, T. B., Staub, B. A., Natarajan, G. M., Lasorda, D. M., & Poornima, I. G. (2014). Acute myocardial infarction associated with dietary supplements containing 1, 3-dimethylamylamine and Citrus aurantium. Texas Heart Institute Journal, 41(1), 70-72.
Gee, P., Tallon, C., Long, N., Moore, G., Boet, R., & Jackson, S. (2012). Use of recreational drug 1, 3-dimethylethylamine (DMAA) associated with cerebral hemorrhage. Annals of emergency medicine, 60(4), 431-434.
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